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Dr Max Goldstein - CID History

Max Aaron Goldstein, MD

For more on Dr. Goldstein, visit did/mag/index.htm


CID is developing a new history book: The Child First: The First 100 Years of CID, expected to be available in the spring of 2015. The book, by St. Louis journalist, Mary Leonard and her daughter, looks at 100 years of newspaper articles about CID. Stay tuned for more information about pre-ordering.


Max Aaron Goldstein, MD 1870-1941

Founding Director
CID – Central Institute for the Deaf
St. Louis, Missouri

  • Born on April 19, 1870 in St. Louis to William and Hulda Goldstein, German emigrants
  • Graduated in 1892 from Missouri Medical College in St. Louis (a precursor to Washington University)
  • Interned at St. Louis City Hospital and did postgraduate work in London, at the University of Strasbourg and in Vienna with Dr. Adam Politzer, the father of modern otology
  • Learned about the acoustic approach to teach deaf children to talk from Victor Urbantschisch at the Vienna Polyclinic
  • Was a nationally and internationally respected ear, nose and throat physician, educator, medical researcher, inventor, author and editor
  • Founded CID – Central Institute for the Deaf in 1914 so parents, teachers and scientists/doctors could work together to help deaf children using the most effective methods. CID immediately became a place where the latest technology and methods were developed or employed – and tested.
  • Started CID with four students in rooms over his medical office at Vandeventer Avenue and Westminster Place in St. Louis, Missouri
  • Included within the original CID school the nation’s first teacher training program for aural-oral deaf education. This program evolved into the Program in Audiology and Communication Sciences (PACS), one of a consortium of programs known as CID at Washington University School of Medicine.
  • Conducted early deafness research and published more than 100 articles, spanning professional interests from medical procedures to restore hearing, early audiological devices, hearing testing, auditory training and lipreading to psychological studies of deaf children to hearing in animals
  • Wrote two books, Problems of the Deaf (1933) and The Acoustic Method for Training of the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (1939)
  • Invented one of the earliest hearing devices used in a classroom, the Simplex Tube
  • Using the Simplex Tube and his own invention, the harmonium, he developed a system of testing and graphing hearing acuity before the audiometer was invented.
  • Tested the hearing of all St. Louis school children
  • Traveled to professional conferences throughout the country, often bringing CID students to demonstrate the success of his school and methods
  • Established a hearing and deafness research department that became birthplace of the science and profession of audiology
  • Founded The Laryngoscope, a medical journal still published today
  • Founded the journal, Oralism and Auralism, bringing science and education together to share knowledge
  • Started the Society of Progressive Oral Advocates, which eventually became the professional section of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
  • Hired capable and sometimes world-famous individuals from varied scientific disciplines to come to CID to study, collaborate on basic knowledge and practical applications to help ameliorate deafness and teach deaf children to speak. Among them were Dr. Lorente de No, a renowned Spanish neuroanatomist who was the first CID director of research, Dr. C.C. Bunch, a famous physicist and author of one of the first widely used university textbooks on hearing, Drs. Max Meyer and Helen Schick, groundbreaking psychologists, Julia Connery, a pioneer in early education of deaf children who had studied under Alexander Graham Bell, and Mildred McGinnis, who defined congenital aphasia and developed the Association Method for teaching speech.
  • Started the St. Louis League for the Hard of Hearing, which became St. Louis Hearing and Speech Center, still existent
  • Was lifelong friends with Helen Keller, taught her the “Two-Step”
  • Arranged a hearing test for famous baseball player Dizzy Dean after Dean was hit on the head with a ball in the 1934 World Series
  • Tried to have his own speech recorded, before calling a physician, when he suffered a stroke in December of 1940
  • Died on July 27, 1941 at his summer home in Frankfort, Michigan
  • Dr. Goldstein’s great granddaughter, Laurie Miller, helps carry on his dream today as a member of the CID board of directors. Miller cochairs the CID Centennial Celebration Committee